The information on this page refers to a Thesis version that is now obsolete.
Please visit the Thesis Docs for current documentation. C ustomizing your background is one of the most high-impact visual changes you can make to your theme. Armed with just a few lines of code and a custom stylesheet, you can literally change your background to just about anything you want. Out of the box, Thesis comes equipped with a markup structure that can accommodate background changes with ease.
Three HTML elements are involved in the production of the background:.
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By adding just a few lines of CSS to your custom stylesheet, you can modify the above elements to create some pretty excellent background color, border, and page color combinations. The second part of this tutorial assumes that you have uploaded these files to your server, so you may want to take that into consideration as well. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other.
But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen.
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Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all:. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase:.
James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts. James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative.
Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago:. If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't.
The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves.
Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.
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You may want to quote part of the following sentence:. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible.
Here's how we would quote Hutchins:. Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example:.
Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end.
Thus, you could write:. According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:. But Robert Hutchins disagrees: "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.
Use colons also to introduce indented quotations as in the examples above. When attributing sources, try to vary the standard "states," "writes," "says," and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts," "argues," "maintains," "insists," "asks," and even "wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau.
Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences:. To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. And here was how we used this material:.
Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken.
When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words:. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all:.
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If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence:.
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Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau. Using Brackets Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage:.
This book's text is coy and condescending. Sample: "And her best friends of all were - guess who - the mice! And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds. She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice.
She does not hear them because she is "off in a world of dreams. In quoting this sentence, you would need to identify whom the pronoun she refers to.